What makes C# and Java different?


In this post, we’ll compare and contrast the advantages of two prominent programming languages: C# and Java. C# (pronounced see-sharp) and Java are both strong, high-level, object-oriented programming languages that have more similarities than differences at their core. One big benefit of learning either language is that their underlying similarities make learning the other quite simple once you’ve mastered the first.

We’ll look at a brief history of the two programming languages in question, as well as their various uses, strengths, and what resources to check into to learn more about C# and Java.

Let’s get started!


We’ll talk about:

  1. A quick history of C# and Java
  2. The beginnings of C#
  3. The beginnings of Java
  4. C# vs. Java: Overview and Applications
  5. What exactly is C#?
  6. What exactly is Java?
  7. Examining the differences between C# and Java
  8. C# vs. Java comparison chart
  9. Which language am I most suited to learn?
  10. Conclusions and Next actions


A quick history of C# and Java

The beginnings of C#

Anders Hejlsberg and his team at Microsoft created C# in 2000 as a direct competition to Java. C#, like Java, was built on the C and C++ programming languages and was originally known as “C.O.O.L.,” or “C-like Object Oriented Language,” but it was tailored to corporate and enterprise purposes.

To catch up to Java, version 2.0 of C# introduced generics and iterators in 2005. Other notable innovations included partial types, anonymous methods, nullable value types, covariance, and contravariance in version 2.0. Though the initial few versions of C# were very similar to C++ and Java, later versions helped to identify C# as a distinct language capable of object-oriented and functional programming.

Although C# was originally closed-source and limited to Microsoft development, additional features and open-source tools were added to enable cross-platform development.


The beginnings of Java

With its initial public implementation in 1995, James Gosling began developing Java at Sun Microsystems (later bought by Oracle) as a replacement for the C++ programming language.

Java’s design goals were to enable the building of reliable and secure programmes across different platforms while using the fewest system resources possible. Furthermore, Gosling aimed to design a language platform that would be easy and familiar to programmers, allowing them to rapidly comprehend the language’s essential notions.

What resulted was an open-source programming language that has shown to be suitable for designing network-based end-user applications in a variety of settings.


C# vs. Java: Overview and Applications

What exactly is C#?

C# is a high-level, general-purpose, object-oriented programming language that is notable for being the first component-oriented language. C#, like Java, is popular because it is versatile, easy to learn, and has a big community that has contributed significantly to the development of new C# tools and software.

C# supports object-oriented programming as well as functional, structured, imperative, reflective, and concurrent programming paradigms as a multi-paradigm programming language.

C# programs need the.NET Framework, which is made up of two parts:

.NET Framework

  1.  .NET Framework Class Library (FCL)
    – Frameworks
    – In.NET, you’ll find utility features.
    – Wrappers for OS operating system features
  2. Common Language Runtime (CLR)


The .NET Framework class library (FCL) is a set of classes, interfaces, and data types that may be used to design .NET applications.

Just-in-time (JIT) compilation is used by the Common Language Runtime (CLR) to compile C# code for .NET applications.

C#’s most common uses include:

  • – Game development
  • – Microsoft applications
  • – Applications for the web
  • – Applications for desktop
  • – … and a lot more!


What exactly is Java?

Java is an object-oriented programming language that is high-level and general-purpose. Java is a popular programming language among application developers due to its ease of use, variety, and portability. Anyone wishing to start a Java project can find a wide array of essential open source libraries and tools thanks to its large and well-established community.

The Java Platform, also known as the Java Development Kit (JDK), is a software development environment for building and running Java apps and components. On Windows, macOS, Linux, and Solaris, the JDK can be installed.

The Java Platform can be thought of as a collection of nested packages:

Java Development Kit (JDK)

  • – Java Runtime Environment (JRE)
  •    – Java Virtual Machine (JVM)
  •    – Libraries
  •    – Tools for development (javac, java, etc.)
  •    – Other documents


The Java Runtime Environment (JRE) is a software package that creates an environment in which only Java programs and applications can operate. The JRE contains the JVM, as well as class libraries and loader classes.

The Java Virtual Machine (JVM) is an interpreter that gives your code a runtime environment. The JVM is an important component of both the JDK and JRE because it is responsible for executing each line of a Java program.

Java’s most common applications include:

  1. Web development on the front end
  2. Web development on the backend
  3. Mobile applications
  4. Big data analytics
  5. Applications for scientific computation
  6. Machine learning
  7. Data science
  8. … and a lot more!


Examining the differences between C# and Java


Because they’re both high-level, object-oriented programming languages descended from C and C++, C# and Java are quite similar.

C# and Java have a lot in common:

  1. Syntax that is similar (e.g., static, class, int)
  2. Advanced features like garbage collection
  3. Inheritance of multiple classes
  4. Cross-platform functionality
  5. Intermediate language code generation
    – C# compiler generates Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL)
    – Java compiler generates Java bytecode
  6. OOP concepts
    – Encapsulation
    – Abstraction
    – Inheritance
    – Polymorphism

C# vs. Java comparison chart


Which language am I most suited to learn?

Although there are enough similarities between C# and Java that learning one and not the other won’t put you at a disadvantage, each language has its own set of advantages to consider.

When deciding between C# and Java, consider the following questions:

  1. What platform am I working with?
  2. What kinds of applications am I going to submit?
  3. Is there a particular tool I’d like to use?
  4. Are there any preferences that are specific to a particular industry?
  5. Is there a preference at the company where I wish to work?

If you want to construct highly complicated web applications or deal with Android apps, you should start with Java. Let’s not forget that the slogan for Java is “Write once, run anywhere”! Java is the clear winner if portability is a high priority. If you plan on building games or working in the Microsoft ecosystem, on the other hand, C# may be a better place to start.

Conclusions and next actions

Check out our classes and learning routes if you want to learn more about C# or Java. With interactive challenges and activities, Hong Kong Coding Club’s learning paths are designed to help you build valuable, practical skills at your own speed.

Java for Programmers is an excellent introduction to the Java programming language. This course is ideal for programmers who are new to Java but have prior programming experience.

Loops, arrays, and object-oriented programming are among the core programming principles covered in C# for Programmers: A Practical Guide.

Enjoy your learning journey!